Biological markers (biomarkers) are useful tools for understanding the nature and extent of human exposure and risk from environmental toxicants. Biomarkers are classified into three basic categories: exposure, effect, or susceptibility. A marker of exposure is the product of the interaction between a target cell or molecule and a foreign substance (NAS, 1989). These markers can be used to determine the biologically effective dose necessary to elicit a particular physiological change in an organism. A marker of effect is a biochemical or physiological change in an organism that can predict the onset of adverse health effects resulting from a given exposure. Lastly, markers of susceptibility act as indicators of an inherent or acquired tendency of an organism to experience an adverse health effect (NAS, 1989). These markers are already used to detect a variety of diseases and show great promise for developing a better understanding of the mechanicisms of disease. Additionally, biomarkers can be used to establish a more rational basis for quantitative risk extrapolation between species, as weIl as to obtain more precise estimates of the time of critical exposure. These markers can also prove helpful in identifying potentially damaging exposures before the onset of adverse health effects. Biomarkers serve as a valuable exposure assessment tool because they take into account exposure from all routes and integrate exposure from all sources. They have the potential to yield better risk estimates than current monitoring and modeling protocols. In lune 1992, Dr. Travis and Dr.
One Health is an emerging concept that aims to bring together human, animal, and environmental health. Achieving harmonized approaches for disease detection and prevention is difficult because traditional boundaries of medical and veterinary practice must be crossed. In the 19th and early 20th centuries this was not the case then researchers like Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch and physicians like William Osler and Rudolph Virchow crossed the boundaries between animal and human health. More recently Calvin Schwabe revised the concept of One Medicine. This was critical for the advancement of the field of epidemiology, especially as applied to zoonotic diseases. The future of One Health is at a crossroads with a need to more clearly define its boundaries and demonstrate its benefits. Interestingly the greatest acceptance of One Health is seen in the developing world where it is having significant impacts on control of infectious diseases."
Table of Contents Introduction Chapter 1: Own Less, Live Best Intentionality for Minimalist Lifestyle Chapter 2: Benefits of Minimalism Chapter 3: Getting Your Life Back Becoming a Minimalist Other Ways to Maximize Life Minimalism in Homes Conclusion Author Bio Publisher Introduction Minimalism is a way of living that cuts the gluttony surrounding our world. It is the exact opposite of what we see in ads, what we hear on the radio, or what commercials air on TV. It contrasts what our society has etched on our minds regarding the claimed importance of accumulating stuff. It tells us to dismiss ourselves from consumerism, instead of priding ourselves for all our material possessions, the clutters in our environment, the skyrocketing debts, and an abundance of infinite distractions. People are joining the craze of the material world and we are left with a meaningless one. People are crazy over lots of stuff, with closets full of clothes, racks full of shoes, garages stacked with useless gears, basements cluttered with boxes of what seems like hoarding of old items. They are living the typical life: working hard to make good money, spend a great chunk on it to pay for mortgage, buy fancy clothes, and keep up with friends who have luxury cars, or get a hand of cool technology which are seen as bragging rights. It is hard to see and realize that we do not need any of these, and that life is more meaningful when there are no people to impress, that we do not have to spend so much on stuff we don't need just to make us happy, and that a rise in pay wouldn't necessarily mean a rise in cost of living. It takes a turning point to make people aware that they are losing themselves over their material possessions. And this point could be achieved by the continuous effort of dissenters who encourage a simpler, less materialist life. Living a minimalist lifestyle means throwing out what you do not need and focus only on those that you need. We only need little to survive while still living happily. We only need the small things to keep content in our hearts. The stuff that surround us are only depictions of materialism, and the society telling us that we have to consume more of it is just a way of luring us into consumerism. These things do not matter and do not account for our own happiness.
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