Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Nanotechnology applications for alternative energies such as solar power, fuel cells, hydrogen and lithium batteries are reviewed in the first section. Recent investigations on carbon nanotubes, nanocatalysts and cyclodextrins disclose unprecedented techniques to monitor and clean pollutants such as greenhouse gases, heavy metals, pesticides, pathogens occurring in water, air and soil. The second section reviews the risks for human health of critical pollutants such as endocrine disruptors, dioxins and heavy metals contaminating seafood and sediments. An exhaustive review of DDT isomers reveals unexpected mechanisms of DDT transfer to fishes. A chapter on pollutant geochronology using river sedimentary archives provides novel insights on pollution history since the beginning of the anthropocene.
This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
The book addresses the question of whether the currently available instruments of international environmental and international humanitarian law are applicable to climate conflicts. It clarifies the different pathways leading from climate change to conflict and offers an analysis of international environmental law embedded within the international doctrine of state responsibility. It goes on to discuss whether climate change amounts to an issue covered by Art. 2.4 UN Charter - the prohibition of the use of force. It then considers the possible application of international humanitarian law to climate conflicts. The book also offers a definition of the term "climate conflict," drawing on legal as well as peace and conflict studies.
This book presents the multifaceted aspects of rare earth elements (REEs), focusing on both their potential benefits and adverse health effects. The adverse impacts of REEs on human and environmental health raise a growing concern not only in the scientific community but also among a number of stakeholders, potentially including students, media workers, and decision makers. The recognized and potential benefits arising from REE-related technological applications may envisage their further advantages.
A limited number of books have been devoted so far to REEs, and they mainly focus on REE-related chemistry, mineralogy, economy, and developing technologies for these elements. This book presents recent research achievements in REE-associated health effects, which have been mostly confined to journal reports on individual laboratory studies so far. It is an updated and balanced approach to REE research and technology. It provides novel yet established information as stated in the title "At the Crossroads between Toxicity and Safety," with particular emphasis on the hormesis phenomenon.
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