Immunochemistry has broad applications for a wide variety of environmental contaminants. However, the potential for applying immunochemical methods to environmental measurements is just beginning to be realized. Immunochemical methods are based on specific antibodies combining with their target analyte(s). Many specific antibodies have been produced for targets of environmental and human health concern. Such antibodies can be configured into various analytical methods. The most popular Immunochemical technique in environmental analyses today is immunoassay. Immunoassays have been shown to detect and quantify many compounds of environmental interest such as pesticides, industrial chemicals, and products of xenobiotic metabolism. Among the most important advantages of immunoassays are their speed, sensitivity, selectivity and cost-effectiveness.
Immunochemical methods for the analysis of environmental contaminants are relatively new on the analytical chemistry scene. These methods are based on the use of a specific antibody as a detector for the analyte of interest. Immunoassays are rapid, sensitive, and selective, and are generally cost effective for large sample loads. They have been applied to diverse chemical structures (i.e., triazines, sulfonylureas, organo-phosphates, polychlorinated biphenyls, cyclodienes) and are adaptable to field use. These characteristics make immunochemical analysis a valuable tool for use by the environmental analytical chemist. This document is designed to facilitate the transfer of this valuable technology to the environmental analytical chemistry laboratory. Field personnel who may need to employ a measurement technology at a monitoring site mayalso find this manual helpful.
This book is a tutorial designed to instruct the reader in use and application of immunochemical methods of analysis for environmental contaminants. A brief introduction describes basic principles and the advantages and disadvantages of the technology, and gives a listing of references which supply more detail. Preparation of the laboratory for use of this technology and the general scientific considerations prior to using the technology are discussed. Detailed step-wise procedures are given for analysis of selected analytes, triazine herbicides, carbaryl, paraquat, and p-nitrophenols, etc. In addition to the specific immunoassay methods, a series of support techniques necessary to perform immunochemical methods are described.
This book provides specific instruction for certain analytes, but also serves to familiarize the novice reader with many generic concepts needed to successfully utilize immunochemistry technology including: applications, sampling, sample preparation, extraction, cleanup, quality assurance, methods development and optimization, data handling and troubleshooting. It is not necessary for the reader to actually perform the immunoassays given in this User's Guide to obtain familiarity with these concepts. The Guide is written so that the information presented can be applied to other immunoassays not given here. Thus, the strength of the Guide is its universal applicability to immunoassay methods.
Professionals and students who come from disciplines other than chemistry need a concise yet reliable guide that explains key concepts in environmental chemistry, from the fundamental science to the necessary calculations for applying them. Updated and reorganized, Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry: A Practical Guide, Third Edition provides the essential background for understanding and solving the most frequent environmental chemistry problems. Diverse and self-contained chapters offer a centralized and easily navigable framework for finding useful data tables that are ordinarily scattered throughout the literature.
Worked examples provide step-by-step details for frequently used calculations, drawing on case histories from real-world environmental applications. Chapters also offer tools for calculating quick estimates of important quantities and practice problems that apply the principles to different conditions. This practical guide provides an ideal basis for self-study, as well as short courses involving the movement and fate of contaminants in the environment.
In addition to extensive reorganization and updating, the Third Edition includes a new chapter, Nutrients and Odors: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur, two new appendices, Solubility of Slightly Soluble Metal Salts and Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in this Book, and new material and case studies on remediation, stormwater management, algae growth and treatment, odor control, and radioisotopes.
Following the report by the World Commission on Environment and Development, research efforts devoted to sustainable development were promoted by the Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research (FRN). With its fifteen essays by Swedish scholars on different aspects of society -- environment interface, giving various analyses of and prospects for the concept of sustainable development -- this book is a result of those efforts. The authors represent a spectrum of inter- and multidisciplinary approaches in the field of ecology, economy and environment. They are economists, ecologists, engineers, anthropologists, physicists, geographers, political scientists, science theorists and educationalists discussing sustainable development and the future of society and the environment. The question is also raised whether there is a special Swedisch 'touch' -- with a 'responsibility for the world' ethos -- to the approach to environmental issues, especially as seen through the efforts of the research community.
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