This groundbreaking book by Olof Dahlback analyzes the direct effects of the environment and the indirect effects of geographical differentiation of individuals on the offender rates of different urban areas. In order to do this, relationships between crime and independent factors are analyzed in various ways - by considering cross-sectional and longitudinal aspects, linear and non-linear models, point and change data, different time periods, micro- and macro-level interaction, and data for individuals with different patterns of moves. The offender rates analyzed refer to individuals suspected by the police. The directly crime-influencing processes focused upon imply that individuals are affected by social control and social resources. The study makes use of advanced analytical models, novel methods and comprehensive data, and it solves several problems that have hampered research.
This book emerges from the recognition that energy, environment and ecosystems are dynamically and inextricably connected. The energy environment system must be addressed in its totality, so that we can devise sustainable solutions that incorporate both economic growth and environmental conservation. No single clean energy source will sustain long-term energy security, and fossil fuels will remain prominent in the mix of energy sources for several decades to come. Energy solutions, therefore, must employ a broad and diverse range of approaches, including cleaner fossil fuel technologies, and an affordable transition to greener power generation employing waste, water and renewable resources. Moreover, adapting to this changing global energy picture will require a transformational shift in the ways we use and deliver energy services. The authors begin with a broad introductory chapter on sustainable energy and the environment, classifying energy resources, cataloging environmental degradations, and outlining the concepts and practices of sustainability. In Chapters Two and Three, they summarize the basic constituents of the environment, the biosphere and its natural cycles, and offer a model of Earth's planetary temperatures and the greenhouse effect. Chapters Four and Five outline conventional energy and power systems, and related environmental degradations. The next several chapters cover clean coal technologies for power generation, and discuss sustainable energy and power technologies based on both thermal and photovoltaic solar energy, along with biomass and wind. The final chapters examine in depth the management of waste and water, pollution control and energy conservation.
This is the second volume of papers in the topical area of environmental management. Arising from work done by the International Centre for the Environment at the University of Bath, the papers address interdisciplinary environmental themes particularly from a business and management perspective.
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